Mama și copil – o legătura surprinzătoare… sau nu chiar?

Stim din totdeauna că legătura unui copil cu mama sa este una specială și profundă. Mama și copilul sunt le-gați fizic, prin placentă, dar și pe plan psihic. Celulele lor migrează prin placentă pentru a se stabili în tot felul de organe – plămâni, tiroidă, mușchi, inimă, rinichi, piele… Și așa se ajunge la reparații de țesuturi și conectarea unor mecanisme de prevenția cancerului și a tulburărilor imu-nitare. Cercetări extrem de recente ale unei echipe ame-ricano-canadiene arată însă că această legătură este încă și mai profundă, dezvăluind aspecte la care, de multe ori, nici nu ne-am fi gândit.

Despre ce este vorba? Am fost practic obsedați în-totdeauna de… unicitatea noastră. Pământul-centrul lumii. Nu este. Omul-singura ființă care gândește, singura inte-ligență din Univers. Se pare că nu este. Am trecut peste toate acestea, mulțumindu-ne cu exclusivitatea propriului nostru corp. „Fiecare om este unic” se spune tot timpul. Și totuși… Se întâmplă frecvent ca celule ale unui organism să se integreze în țesuturi ale unei alte persoane. Se pare că nu suntem chiar atât de „autonomi” pe cât credeam și că cei mai mulți purtăm în noi „resturi”, fragmente ale altor indivizi. Culminând cu identificarea de celule masculine în creierul unor femei, celule care au supraviețuit „acolo” uneori timp de câteva zeci de ani!

Un „mix” imposibil? Nu. Ideea aceasta de a purta în noi celule din alte corpuri, care să co-existe și să co-funcționeze cu celulele noastre nici nu este una nouă. Exemple se cunosc încă din antichitatea greacă – himerele. Combinația șarpe-leu-capră, sau, de ce nu, minotaurul – combinația taur-om. O condiție care poartă numele de „Microhimerism” (MH), și care cunoaște exemplare „na-turale” mult mai puțin „amenințătoare” – coralii, de ex. Pri-mele exemple de MH la om datează de câțiva ani, de când s-au descoperit cromozomi Y în sângele unor femei după sar-cină. Fiind vorba de o entitate exlusiv masculină, celulele observate nu ar fi putut aparține femeii, ipoteza cea mai probabilă fiind că ele proveneau din timpul sarcinii cu alți copii băieți.

Revenind la studiul amintit, cum spuneam, celulele MH au fost decelate nu doar în sânge ci și în peste 60% din creierele investigate (și în mai multe zone cere-brale). Iar transferul de celule se face nu doar intrauterin, prin placentă, ci și în timpul alăptatului. Se poate face și între gemeni in utero, și chiar pot fi „primite” de un făt de la un frate adus pe lume de aceeași mamă înaintea lui. Mai mult, în organismul feminin se pot găsi celule MH atât de la copii cât și de la mamele lor.

Nu este clar încă ce fac efectiv celulele MH fetale microhimerice în corpul mamei. Ele „seamănă” cu celulele stem: pot genera diverse țesuturi sau pot contribui la repararea unor țesuturi existente. S-a descoperit de ex. la o mamă-șobolan că celulele MH au migrat spre inima ei bolnavă, s-au „specializat”, devenind celule cardiace și au vindecat-o, reparând zona afectată. Același lucru s-ar putea întâmpla și la nivelul creierului. Sau în sistemul imunitar, determinând starea de alertă a aces-tuia față de celule similare cu cele ale corpului dar cu anumite diferențe ge-netice – celulele maligne, de ex.

Pe de altă parte, microhi-merismul este mai frecvent la persone cu scleroză multiplă decât la frații lor sănătoși, deci celulele himerice ar putea fi distrugătoare în cazul acestei boli – poate prin declanșarea unui atac autoimun (atacul siste-mului imunitar asupra celulelor sănătoase ale organismului).

Pespectivele aplicațiilor practice sunt impre-sionante…
***
… amintindu-ne totodată că nu trebuie să uităm interconexiunile între organismul nostru și cel al mamei noastre. Pentru fiecare dintre noi, nașterea este Big Bang-ul prin care ne-am creat „universul” nostru, despărțindu-ne dramatic de cel al mamei care ne-a adus pe lume. Dar legătura dintre cele două universuri rămâne. Și trebuie să nu uităm niciodată acest lucru. Nici copilul, nici părintele.

În titlu, vorbind de această legătură, spuneam că poate este mai puțin sur-prinzătoare decât pare. Aduceți-vă a-minte de câte ori nu am asistat inclusiv la vindecări miraculoase – sau cel puțin greu de explicat- ale copilului sau ma-mei. Și poate că este un bun prilej să ne gândim că această ne-uitare despre care vorbeam înseamnă în primul rând să păstrăm dragoste și respect unul față de celălalt atâta timp cât conviețuim pe lume. Chiar dacă uneori lucrul acesta pare foarte greu de realizat…

Prof. Dr. Andrei Dorobanțu, fizician

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