Ziua Mondială de Luptă împotriva Hepatitei – 28 iulie 2019

Ziua Mondială de Luptă împotriva Hepatitei este un eveniment anual, cu atenția mondială îndreptată asupra grupurilor de pacienţi şi persoanelor care trăiesc cu hepatită virală. Este o oportunitate globală de a sensibiliza şi de a induce o schimbare reală în prevenirea bolilor şi a accesului la testare şi tratament.
Sloganul acestei campanii este: Să eliminăm hepatita!
Deoarece scopul de eliminare a hepatitei virale nu poate fi atins fără a preveni boala și a găsi persoanele nediagnosticate și fără conectarea acestora la îngrijire și tratament, campania de sensibilizare care con-tinuă și în anul 2019, își propune să educe, să influențeze politicile na-ționale de testare și să încurajeze oamenii să se testeze și/sau să devină susținători în încercarea de a găsi cazurile nediagnosticate.
Hepatita virală este o problemă de sănătate publică la nivel mondial.
Hepatitele B și C ucid anual 1,34 milioane de persoane, mai mult decât HIV/SIDA, tuberculoza sau malaria.
Hepatitele B și C sunt responsabile pentru 2 din 3 decese cauzate de cancerul hepatic.
Costul dozei de vaccin la naștere este de 20 de cenți (USD), cu toate acestea, încă nu este folosit în 48% din țările lumii.
Eliminarea hepatitei B și hepatitei C, ca amenințări la adresa sănătății publice, până în anul 2030 ar preveni aproximativ 36 de milioane de infecții și ar salva 10 milioane de vieți.
Din cele 325 de milioane de oameni care trăiesc cu hepatita virală la nivel global, mai mult de 290 de milioane (9 din 10!) trăiesc fără să știe cu hepatita B sau C. Fără îmbunătățirea semnificativă a diagnosticului, ratele de tratament vor scădea, ratele de infectare vor crește și vom pierde posibilitatea de a elimina hepatita virală până în anul 2030 .

Hepatitele virale la nivel european
Hepatita B: în anul 2017 au fost raportate 26.907 cazuri, din care: acute: 2.486 (9%); cronice: 15.472 (58%); necunoscute: 8.607 (32%); 30% din cazuri au avut vârste cuprinse între 25 și 34 de ani.
Hepatita C: în anul 2017 au fost raportate 31.273 cazuri, din care: acute: 861 (3%); cronice: 6.805 (22%); necunoscute: 23.311 (75%); 49% din cazuri au avut vârste cuprinse între 25 și 44 de ani; 6% au avut vârsta sub 25 de ani.
Hepatitele virale în România, în anul 2018: în sistemul național de supraveghere au intrat 241 cazuri de hepatite virale tip B și C; continuă trendul descendent pentru incidența raportată a hepatitei virale tip B, în paralel cu variații minore, de la un an la altul, pentru hepatita virală tip C.
Hepatita virală acută tip B este mai frecvent raportată pentru grupa de vârstă 35-44 ani la sexul masculin, respectiv 45-54 ani la cel feminin.
Calea de transmitere nosocomială a înregistrat frecvența cea mai ridicată, pentru ambele tipuri de hepatită acută.

Dr. Gabriela Gânscă, Direcţia de Sănătate Publică a Judeţului Cluj

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